Members of several genera have been reared from tephritid puparia. The genus Coptera Say (Figs. 1, 2) contains several species that have confirmed host records for Tephritidae (Silvestri 1914, Nixon 1930, Muesebeck 1980, Sivinski et al. 1998, Yoder and Wharton 2002). It is possible that several of the species of Coptera are specific to Tephritidae. Members of the genus Trichopria (Fig. 5) are often reared from puparia obtained from infested fruit, but the species of Trichopria attack a wide range of hosts, and at least some of these records are from families of Diptera other than Tephritidae. Care should be taken to confirm any rearings of Trichopria and Spilomicrus (Figs. 3,4) from tephritid hosts.
1. Coptera sp. fore wing, left...
2. Coptera sp. lateral habitus...
3. Spilomicrus sp. fore wing...
4. Spilomicrus sp. habitus: lateral...
5.Trichopria sp. fore wing
The Nearctic species of Coptera and Psilus were revised by Muesebeck (1980). Those species with host records can be found on the Coptera page.
No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Identification of Species and Subspecies
In his revision, Muesebeck (1980) discusses the separation of Psilus into two distinct genera (Psilus and Coptera), and provides a description of the Nearctic species of both genera. The distinguishing morphological characteristics used by Muesebeck to separate the genera are given below. For a summary of Nearctic Coptera spp. see the Coptera taxon page.

Fore wing with subcosta complete, although apical part of vein is frequently hyaline; post-occipital carina absent; fore wing of female entire, with no suggestion of an apical incision; antennae of male with very short first flagellar segment, which is always much shorter than second……Psilus Panzer

Fore wing with subcosta incomplete; post-occipital carina present though sometimes poorly developed; fore wing of female (rarely that of male) always deeply and sharply incised at apex; first segment of antennal flagellum of male never shorter than second……Coptera Say

1. Coptera sp. head ant...
2. Psilus sp. hea...
3. Psilus sp. head: lat...
4. Coptera sp. head: lat...
Biology / Hosts
Members of the genera Coptera and Trichopria attack pupae inside host puparia. The species of Coptera that have been studied in detail are endoparasitoids of pupae, with oviposition through the host puparium.

Spilomicrus hemipterus has been collected from puparia of Anomoia purmunda infesting Crataegus, and from various Rhagoletis species infesting Lonicera, Prunus, and Berberis in Europe (Hoffmeister 1990, Hoffmeister 1992).

Trichopria was recorded by Bodenheimer (1951) from pupae of Ceratitis capitata in Israel. Other records are discussed in Ovruski et al. (2000)