Diachasmimorpha martinalujai Wharton, 2012

This species was named after Martin Aluja in recognition of his many contributions to tephritid biology, particularly in Mexico.

The male paratypes, though only three in number, are remarkably variable in size, with larger individuals closely approaching the size of D. hildagensis. Quantitative measures are also highly variable, which is not surprising given the variation in size.

Detailed assessment of the available reared material suggests the presence of a diverse assemblage of Diachasmimorpha species in Mexico, associated with different hosts and host plants. The relatively small morphological differences between D. hildagensis and D. martinalujai are consistent among the available material and the differences in host and host plant associations lend support to the recognition of these as separate species.

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Diachasmimorpha martinalujai Wharton, 2012. In Wharton et al. (2012): 36 (key), 43-45 (description). Holotype female will ultimately be deposited in UNAM.
Female (Fig. 1). Head in dorsal view 1.30 x broader than mesoscutum, 1.65 x broader than face; eye in dorsal view 2.0 x longer than temple, temples not receding, but width at eyes greater than width at temples; eye in lateral view (Fig. 4) 2.05 x longer than temple. Discrete facial midridge ending dorsally as a distinct elevation at base of antennae, continuing between antennae onto frons as low, sharp, bifurcating ridges. Frons irregularly rugulose along midline between bifurcating arms, otherwise polished, with moderately dense patch of decumbent, laterally-directed, white setae on either side of midline; bare on either side of ocellar field; width of ocellar field 0.95 x distance from ocellar field to eye. Face (Fig. 2) 2.2 x wider than high; uniformly setose, distinctly punctate, punctures separated by about 1 x their diameter or slightly less. Malar sulcus deep, complete; malar space about 1.1 x basal width of mandible, 0.35 x eye height. Clypeus (Fig. 2) 2.65 x wider than high; very weakly convex, nearly flat. Occipital carina weak, difficult to discern near base of mandible, short, extending dorsally to ventral margin of eye. Hypostomal carina extending as short but distinct flange below mandible. Antenna with 45 flagellomeres; first flagellomere 1.3 x longer than second; 1.8 x longer than wide.

Mesosoma 1.4 x longer than high; 1.9 x longer than wide; 1.35 x higher than wide. Pronotum not visible dorsally; crenulae extending over dorsal 0.3-0.4 of pronotum laterally within narrow, shallow groove; groove not margined anteriorly by carina; anterior margin of pronotum laterally sinuate, not abruptly excavated (Fig. 3). Notauli (Figs 3, 5) deep anteriorly, ending abruptly posteriorly, short, not quite extending posteriorly to level of anterior margin of tegula, not reaching long, narrow midpit, anterior end extending to anterior-lateral margin of scutum; mesoscutum without supra-marginal carina adjacent margin of mesoscutum between base of notaulus and tegula. Scuto-scutellar sulcus rectangular or nearly so; 4.75 x wider than midlength; crenulate-foveolate. Propodeum rugose, areola extending over posterior 0.8 but partially obscured by sculpture. Precoxal sulcus (Fig. 3) crenulate, distinctly separated from anterior margin of mesopleuron.

Wings. Fore wing stigma short, broad, discrete distally, 3.5 x longer than wide; r1 arising from midlength of stigma; 1RS (excluding parastigma) 0.30 x length of 1M; m-cu postfurcal by 0.25 x length of m-cu; second submarginal cell converging distally; 2RS 0.9 x length of 3RSa; 2CUa about 1.7 x longer than 2cu-a; 1cu-a distad 1M by about 1.0 x its length.

Metasoma not distinctly petiolate; head 1.8 x wider than apex of T1. T1 1.05 x as long as apical width; strongly diverging apically, with apex 2.1 x wider than base; surface smooth; dorsal carinae parallel-sided, widely separated at posteriorly, distinctly elevated over anterior 0.6, weaker and becoming indistinct posteriorly; lateral carina weaker than dorsal carina basally, extending distinctly ventrad spiracle, rounded and barely distinguishable posteriorad spiracle; spiracle at midlength of T1; dorsope absent but lateral and dorsal carinae elevated at junction, giving appearance of a slight depression; laterope deep; S1 very short. T2 unsculptured, with sharp lateral margins. Ovipositor sheath 2.4 x longer than mesosoma, densely setose over apical half, with 4-5 irregular rows of setae, the setae longer than sheath width, more sparsely setose basally.

Color (Figs 1-5). Very similar to D. hildagensis. Meso- and metasoma orange, except tegula black; head dorsally black except for small orange spot on vertex adjacent eye; lower gena and most of occiput yellow-orange; narrow bands dorsad epistomal sulcus, along ventral margin of clypeus and vertically through middle of mandible orange; legs black to dark reddish brown except basal 0.5 of hind coxa orange, joint between femora and trochantelli reddish orange.

Male. Largely as in female with variation as follows: head in dorsal view 1.35-1.45 x broader than mesoscutum, 1.6-1.7 x broader than face; eye in dorsal view 1.6-1.85 x longer than temple, in lateral view 1.7-1.95 x longer than temple; face 1.95-2.1 x wider than high; malar space 0.3-0.45 x eye height; clypeus 2.6-2.8 x wider than high; antenna with 39-47 flagellomeres; first flagellomere 1.1-1.2 x longer than second, 2.0-2.1 x longer than wide; mesosoma 1.25-1.35 x longer than high; 1.85-1.95 x longer than wide; 1.4-1.5 x higher than wide; pronope deep, moderately large but not interrupting posterior crenulate groove middorsally; crenulae extending over dorsal 0.2-0.4 of pronotum laterally; scuto-scutellar sulcus 4.0-5.0 x wider than midlength; areola of propodeum variably obscured, short and triangular rather than pentagonal in topotypic paratype; precoxal sulcus occasionally extending to anterior margin of mesopleuron; fore wing stigma 3.3-3.8 x longer than wide; 1RS 0.2-0.25 x length of 1M; m-cu postfurcal by 0.15-2.0 x length of m-cu; 2RS 0.8-1.05 x length of 3RSa; head 1.85-2.2 x wider than apex of T1; T1 0.95-1.05 x as long as apical width, apex 2.1-2.25 x wider than base; surface of T1 between dorsal carinae weakly rugulose; dorsal carinae weakly sinuate, weakly converging at posterior margin of T1; S1 extending posteriorly only to level of dorsal tendon attachment; head varying from darker as in female to more extensively pale (as in Fig. 2) with ventral 0.5 of face orange, outer surface of mandible entirely dark orange and clypeus reddish brown; hind coxa varying from almost entirely orange to almost entirely black; hind femur and tibia varying from black to reddish brown.

Body length 4.9 mm (female), 3.1-4.7 mm (male), fore wing length 4.0 mm (female), 2.7-4.1 mm (male), mesosomal length 1.55 mm (female), 1.0-1.7 mm (male).

1. Diachasmimorpha martinal...
2. Diachasmimorpha martinal...
3. Diachasmimorpha martinal...
4. Diachasmimorpha martin...
5. Diachasmimorpha martinal...
Diagnosis and Relationships
This species is nearly identical to Diachasmimorpha hildagensis based on the similarly long ovipositor (Fi. 1) and the notaulus that consistently extends all the way to the anterior margin of the mesoscutum (Fig. 2). The eye is distinctly larger in Diachasmimorpha martinalujai than in Diachasmimorpha hildagensis. Diachasmimorpha norrbomi is also similar, but has a shorter ovipositor and the notaulus (Fig. 3) only rarely extends anteriorly to the margin of the mesoscutum.
1. Diachasmimorpha martinal...
2. Diachasmimorpha martinal...
3. Diachasmimorpha norrbomi...
Known only from Mexico; this species was described from specimens collected in D. F. and in the states of Hidalgo and Puebla.

Type locality. Mexico, Distrito Federal.

No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Biology / Hosts
This is the species that has been referred to as Diachasmimorpha mexicana (vide Wharton) in previous publications on parasitoids of Rhagoletis Loew in Mexico (e.g. Rull et al. 2009). The holotype and paratypes were all reared from Mexican populations of Rhagoletis pomonella infesting fruits of various species of Crataegus, including C. mexicana DC., as characterized by Xie et al. (2007).