Stigmatopoea maya Wharton, 2012

The species name is in reference the Mayan Indians of this region.

This species is similar in general appearance to members of the genus Lorenzopius, but T1 is not distinctly tubular as it is in the latter genus. The overall resemblance to Lorenzopius is enhanced by the presence of weak depressions on T1 that are similar in position in E. maya and L. calycomyzae van Achterberg and Salvo. The depressions are variable within members of the same reared series of E. maya: being absent, for example, in the holotype, but well developed in some of the paratypes.

The limited information on hosts suggests that species with a more tubular petiole, such as those in Lorenzopius, are parasitoids of leaf-mining Agromyzidae while the species of Stigmatopoea attack both leaf-mining and fruit-infesting tephritids.

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Eurytenes (Stigmatopoea) maya Wharton, 2012. In: Wharton et al. (2012): 54-58.
Female. Head in dorsal view 1.25-1.30 x broader than mesoscutum, 1.80-1.95 x broader than face; eye in dorsal view 2.5-3.2 x longer than temple, temples distinctly receding behind eyes. Frons and vertex highly polished, unsculptured except for shallow, median depression between toruli; frons bare, vertex and occiput with a few, short, scattered setae; width of ocellar field 1.05-1.3 x distance from ocellar field to eye. Face 1.55-1.70 x wider than high; slightly less polished than frons; uniformly setose (as in Fig. 2), with very fine punctures, these separated by at least 2 x their diameter. Frons and face delimited by slight change in sculpture resulting in weak, shallow sulcus between torulus and eye; distance between antennal toruli equal to distance from torulus to eye, eye not distinctly emarginate in region of antenna. Malar sulcus deep, complete; malar space about 0.5 x basal width of mandible, 0.2 x eye height. Face weakly convex, bulging slightly medially along the low midridge. Epistomal sulcus weak mid-dorsally, more distinct laterally. Clypeus 2.2-2.5 x wider than high; weakly convex, slightly protruding in profile; ventral margin sharp, truncate to very weakly concave in frontal view. Labrum broadly exposed, gap between ventral margin of clypeus and dorsal margin of mandible varying from 0.5-1.0 x height of clypeus, depending on how tightly closed the mandibles are. Occipital carina distinctly curved medially at dorsal end, broadly absent mid-dorsally, the space where the carina is absent distinctly wider than width of ocellar field; occipital and hypostomal carinae widely separated at base of mandible, the latter extending as a flange beneath about basal 0.2 of mandible. Mandible without basal lobe ventrally; bidentate apically, lower tooth much smaller than dorsal tooth and slightly twisted beneath dorsal tooth; ventral margin carinate throughout. Antenna 1.35-1.45 x longer than fore wing, with 39-43 flagellomeres; first flagellomere 1.1-1.3 x longer than second, 1.2-1.3 x longer than third; flagellomeres 2.3-2.7 x longer than wide basally, twice longer than wide apically. Maxillary palps a little longer than head height; fifth and sixth segments equal in length or nearly so, fourth segment 1.1-1.15 x longer than both fifth and sixth.

Mesosoma 1.4 x longer than high; 1.9 x longer than wide; 1.35-1.40 x higher than wide. Pronotum dorsally a narrow, polished, smooth band with crenulate groove along posterior margin; rarely with discernible, slightly enlarged pit in middle of crenulate groove; crenulae extending in narrow, shallow groove onto pronotum laterally, but only covering dorsal 0.2-0.4; groove margined anteriorly by sharp carina that continues ventrally along full length of pronotum. Anterior declivity of mesoscutum completely vertical, bare or nearly so; anterior-lateral corners of mesoscutum at upper edge of declivity elevated, rounded, sparsely setose; notauli extending 0.4 x distance from anterior declivity to scuto-scutellar sulcus, extending posteriorly from lateral side of elevated anterior-lateral corners, not extending to mesoscutal margin anteriorly, very weakly converging posteriorly; narrow, crenulate throughout; mesoscutum with distinct supra-marginal carina extending from elevated anterior-lateral corner to tegula. Lateral and median mesoscutal lobes bare except scattered setae along notauli; midpit deep, round to somewhat elongate, never extending to notauli. Scuto-scutellar sulcus nearly rectangular, a little narrower medially; 3.75-4.25 x wider than midlength; crenulate-foveolate, with 7 ridges; all sides vertical, clearly delineated. Scutellum very weakly convex, nearly flat, not strongly elevated; bare except for scattered setae posteriorly; unsculptured, even along posterior margin. Propodeum with median carina over anterior 0.3, bifurcating at this point to form an inverted v-shaped transverse carina extending to pleural carina just posteriad spiracle; pleural carina complete from base to apex though sometimes partly obscured by sculpture posteriad spiracle; lateral longitudinal carina parallel to and narrowly separated from pleural carina anteriad spiracle, more medially displaced when visible posteriad transverse carinae, forming part of broad areola; area between pleural and lateral longitudinal carinae rugose and sparsely setose anteriorly; lateral propodeal areas anteriorly on either side of median carina smooth, bare, unsculptured; areola broad, varying from distinct (with surface irregularly, weakly rugulose) to indistinct (surface rugose, disrupting carinate margin of areola); lateral propodeal areas posteriorly varying from nearly unsculptured and distinct to rugose and indistinct; propodeum largely bare medially, with a few scattered setae. Mesopleuron largely bare, with sparse setae in unsculptured subalar region and a small patch of setae dorsad mid coxa; posterior margin unsculptured. Precoxal sulcus weakly impressed but distinct; unsculptured. Metapleuron bare on dorsal half except for small patch below wing, with a few long setae medially, and patches of setae among rugulose sculpture along ventral margin and in groove on ventral half of anterior margin; otherwise unsculptured.

Wings. Fore wing stigma parallel-sided, discrete posteriorly, 7.50-7.75 x longer than wide; r1 arising from basal 0.35; 1RS (excluding parastigma) 0.20-0.25 x length of 1M; RS+M straight or nearly so; m-cu postfurcal, extending into basal corner of second submarginal cell; second submarginal cell weakly converging distally; 3RSa 1.10-1.25 x longer than 2RS; 2RS 2.5-3.4 x longer than r, the two not forming a continuous line; 2RS with distinct median bend; 3RSb very weakly bowed, nearly straight; 3M variable, but often pigmented and sclerotized for most of its length; 2CUa 0.5-0.7 x length of 2cu-a, 2CUb arising well above middle of first subdiscal cell; 1cu-a distad 1M by about 1.0 x its length; 1-1A bowed toward wing margin, and separated therefrom by its width. Hind wing RS a weak but distinct, unpigmented crease, extending nearly to wing margin in most specimens; 2M extending to wing margin as a more deeply impressed line, very weakly pigmented for much of its length; m-cu usually a deeply impressed, curved line extending about half distance to wing margin.

Metasoma distinctly petiolate; head 3.5-3.8 x wider than apex of T1. T1 2.15-2.35 x longer than apical width; nearly parallel-sided, with apex 1.20-1.35 x wider than base; surface striate throughout, above and below lateral carina; one or two very shallow, subapical depressions usually present dorsally; dorsope distinct, deep; laterope completely absent; dorsal carina present only at base, lateral carina usually distinct throughout; spiracle positioned 0.6 x length of T1 from the base; S1 extending about 0.25-0.30 x length of T1; dorsal surface of petiole in profile evenly convex from base to apex. T2 and following without sharp lateral margins; spiracle of second metasomal tergum laterally displaced, not visible in dorsal view. Ovipositor as long as mesosoma; ovipositor sheath 0.6-0.7 x length of mesosoma, with 2-3 irregular rows of long setae along its length.

Color: head, including antenna, mesosoma, petiole and ovipositor sheath dark brown except scape yellow; mandible, lower gena, ventral portion of clypeus, pedicel (occasionally), face adjacent antennal base, propleuron, anterior margin of pronotum, spot on mesopleuron below wing and a smaller spot above mid coxa, two streaks on either side of midpit on mesoscutum, posterior margins of scutellum and metapleuron, and petiole laterally (occasionally) dark yellow to orange; palps pale yellow, nearly white. Legs and metasoma beyond T1 yellow except hind tibia, hind tarsi, lateral margin of metasomal terga 2 + 3 and often anterior half of terga 4-6 brown, the hind tibia often paler medially.

Male. As in female except antenna with 41-45 flagellomeres, head 4.0-4.6 x wider than apex of T1 and T1 2.5-2.9 x longer than apical width. Body somewhat darker in color, with metasomal terga 6, 7, and most or all of 5 dark brown.

Body length 3.2-4.3 mm; wing length 3.5-4.2 mm.

Diagnosis and Relationships
This species runs to Opius (Nosopoea) in Fischer (1972, 1977) on the basis of the exposed labrum, distinct mesonotal midpit, and absence of sculpture within the precoxal sulcus. It differs from other described species placed in the subgenus Nosopoea by the combination of larger size, more numerous flagellomeres, relatively well-developed notauli (Figs 6, 7), parallel-sided T1 (Fig. 8), and parallel-sided stigma (Fig. 9), all characters which it shares with the type species of Stigmatopoea, Eurytenes (Stigmatopoea) macrocerus. In Eurytenes maya, the anterior declivity of the mesoscutum is more vertical (Figs 5, 6) and the anterior-lateral corners of the mesoscutal disc are distinctly elevated (Fig. 6) in comparison to Eurytenes macrocerus. Eurytenes maya differs from another Mexican species, Eurytenes norrbomi Wharton, by possessing a relatively longer ovipositor (Fig. 1 vs. Fig. 12) and less densely setose mesoscutum (Fig. 7 vs. 13).

This species has been placed in Eurytenes (Stigmatopoea) based on the relative length of S1 (Fig. 11) and the following characteristics of T1 (Figs 8, 10, 11), wing venation (Fig. 9), mesoscutal sculpture (Figs 6, 7), clypeus/labrum (Figs 2, 3), and mandibles (Figs 2, 3): Mandible without basal tooth or lobe ventrally; labrum broadly exposed; notauli deep, well developed anteriorly; midpit present; fore wing stigma long, narrow, parallel-sided, discrete posteriorly, r1 arising distinctly basad its midpoint; second submarginal cell with 2RS shorter than 3RSb; 2CUb arising above middle of hind margin of first subdiscal cell; dorsope present.

1.Eurytenes maya habitus
2.Eurytenes maya face
3. Eurytenes maya face obli...
4. Eurytenes maya side of h...
5. Eurytenes maya mesosoma ...
6. Eurytenes maya dorsal-la...
7. Eurytenes maya head a...
8. Eurytenes maya propodeum...
9.Eurytenes maya wing
10. Eurytenes maya petiole (...
11.Eurytenes maya petiole
12. Eurytenes norrbomi habit...
13. Eurytenes norrbomi dorsa...
The type locality is San Cristobal de las Casas in Chiapas, Mexico. It has also been collected in Huixtan, Cruz Quemada, and Teopisca in Chiapas as well as Rio Verde in the state of San Luis Potosi.

Type locality. Mexico, Chiapas, San Cristobal de las Casas.

Paratypes: 2 females, same data as holotype but collected 26.xi.2001, #35A (TAMU); 1 female, same locality, 14.xi.2001, M. Aluja, Key 30A, host: Rhagoletis sp. on tejocote, manzanita (TAMU); 1 female, same locality, 14.xi.2001, J. Marquez, ex: R. pomonella on Crataegus sp., #27 (TAMU); 1 female, Chiapas, Rancho Nuevo, 5 km to San Cristobal de las Casas- freeway 190, 15.xi.2002, J. L. Marquez, M. Aluja, # 42, host: Rhagoletis pomonella ex fruit of Crataegus mexicana (TAMU); 2 males, Chiapas, 3 km E. San Cristobal, 15.xi.1994, R. Jones, ex pupa of Rhagoletis pomonella (TAMU); 3 females, Chiapas, Huixtan, 15.ix.2002, J. Marquez, Key 34, host: R. pomonella ex fruit of Crataegus spp. (TAMU); 1 male, 1 female, Chiapas, Cruz Quemada, 15.xi.2002, host: Rhagoletis pomonella ex fruit of Malus sp., J. Marquez, Key 35, and J. L. Marquez, M. Aluja, #45 (TAMU); 1 male, 1? (abdomen missing), Chiapas, Teopisca, 26.xi.2001, J. L. Marquez, ex: R. pomonella on Crataegus sp. #26 (TAMU).

Other specimens examined (not paratype): 1 male, Mexico: San Luis Potosi, Rio Verde, 7.×.2003, M. Pale, Key 71, Rhagoletis nr. pomonella on Crataegus parrayana (TAMU) [sequenced].

No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Biology / Hosts
All specimens used in the original description of this species were reared from Mexican populations of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), infesting either hawthorns (species of Crataegus L.) or apples (Malus domestica Borkh.).