Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck, 1911)
Doryctobracon crawfordi has been reared from many host fruits and (together with Doryctobracon areolatus) is one of the two most commonly encountered species of Doryctobracon in general surveys of fruit-infesting flies of the Neotropics.
Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
This is a large, orange species with a dark head.
Diagnosis and Relationships
This species is not readily separated from Doryctobracon trinidadensis (see Doryctobracon genus page).
Originally described from Costa Rica (Enderlein 1920). Doryctobracon crawfordi occurs from northern Mexico to Bolivia, but not yet recorded from every country in the middle of its range. Also not recorded from the Caribbean islands Wharton and Marsh (1978). Ovruski et al. (2000) provide a good review of host and distribution data and is a good source for additional literature.
Unsuccessful efforts have been made to introduce this species to Hawaii, Florida, Puerto Rico, and elsewhere.
Costa Rica (Bezzi, M. 1919.; Keilin, D.and Picado, C. 1913.; Thompson, W. R. 1953.; Jiron, L. F. and Mexzon, R. G. 1989.; Wharton, R. A.; Gilstrap, F. E.; Rhode, R. H.; Fischel-M, M.; Hart, W. G. 1981.; Narayanan, E. S. and Chawla, S. S. 1962.; Ovruski, S.; Aluja, M.; Sivinski, J.; Wharton, R. 2000.)
Mexico (Clancy, D. W.; Marucci, P. E.; Dresner, E. 1952.; Crawford, D. L. 1927.; Gahan, A. B. 1915.; Thompson, W. R. 1953.; Fischer, M. 1963.; Ovruski, S. M. and Fidalgo, P. 1994.; Sivinski, J.; Aluja, M.; Lopez, M. 1997.; Costa Lima, A. da. 1937.; Gilstrap, F. E. and Hart, W. G. 1987.; Narayanan, E. S. and Chawla, S. S. 1962.; Turica, A. 1968.; Ovruski, S.; Aluja, M.; Sivinski, J.; Wharton, R. 2000.; Hernandez-Ortiz, V.; Perez-Alonso, R.; Wharton, R. A. 1994.; Eitam, A. 1998.)
Chiapas (Aluja, M.; Guillen, J.; Liedo, P.; Cabrera, M.; Rios, E.; de la Rosa, G.; Celedonio, H.; Mota, D. 1990.; Aluja, M.; Rull, J.; Sivinski, J.; Norrbom, A. L.; Wharton, R. A.; Macias-Ordonez, R.; Diaz-Fleischer, R; Lopez, M. 2003.; Coronado Blanco, J. M.; Ruiz Cancino, E.; Varela Fuentes, S. E. 2004.)
Biology / Hosts
Reared from several native species of Anastrepha, including A. ludens (Loew) and A. striata Schiner as well as the introduced pest Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Detailed biologies have been published on this species, as well as numerous host records. There are host records from C. capitata from Guatemala (Eskafi 1990) and Venezuela (Katiyar et al. 1995).
Biology and Behavior
The earliest descriptions of larvae and adults, as well as rearing techniques, can be found in Keilin and Picado (1913, 1920). Darby and Kapp (1934) give information on affects of temperature and humidity on development of D. crawfordi and its host Anastrepha ludens. Baker et al. (1944) provide a summary and interpretation of previous biological data (including previously unpublished observations).