Psyttalia perproxima (Silvestri, 1913)

For additional information, see comments on the Psyttalia page, and under Psyttalia concolor.
Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
Originally described in the genus Opius, and placed by Fischer (1987) in the subgenus Psyttalia. Psyttalia was subsequently elevated to generic rank by Wharton (1987). The combination Psyttalia perproxima first appeared in Wharton (1989), though Wharton (1987) had earlier transferred all members of the concolor species group to Psyttalia
Afrotropics; originally described from Benin, Ghana, and southern Nigeria. Also collected in Cameroon and Togo (Steck et al. 1986). Eastern African localities need verification.

Introduced to Hawaii; apparently released but not recovered.

Identification of Species and Subspecies
During the exploration phase of the Oriental fruit fly program. several of the opiines from Kenya were variously identified as color varieties of Psyttalia concolor or as Psyttalia perproxima (Clausen et al. 1965). Material from the same localities had been identified as either P. humilis or P. perproxima during an earlier sampling program (Bianchi and Krauss, 1936). Identification of these three species is still a problem (Rugman-Jones et al. 2009), and uncertainty over whether or not they are distinct makes it difficult to correctly associate previously published host records. Additionally, Silvestri (1913) described Opius perproximus variety modestior based on slight differences in color, ovipositor length, and proportions and number of antennal segments.
Biology / Hosts
Recorded from several hosts (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983, Steck et al. 1986), but some of these will need to be verified once a better way is found to distinguish this species from concolor and humilis. Recorded hosts include Dacus ciliatus Loew, D. bivittatus (Bigot), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), C. flexuosa (Walker), C. pedestris (Bezzi), C. punctata (Wiedemann) or a related species, C. colae Silvestri, and Tririthrum nigerrimum (Bezzi). Lab reared on medfly, C. capitata.