Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway, 1951)
Released in Hawaii in the late 1940s/early 1950s during the Oriental fruit fly program (Clausen et al. 1965) and although recoveries were made initially (Bess et al. 1961), it apparently did not become established until re-introduced by Messing in the 1990s.
Established in Hawaii on B. latifrons.
In laboratory tests to evaluate the response of D. krausii to 4 non-target tephritids in Hawaii, Duan and Messing (2000) report that from 3 of the hosts, Trupanea dubautiae (Bryan), Ensina sonchi (L.), and Procecidochares utilis (Stone), no parasitoids emerged but 2.3-5% of dead fly puparia or larvae contained dead D. krausii eggs and/or first instar larvae. From the fourth tephritid host, Eutreta xanthochaeta Aldrich, a mean of 1.8 and 0.8 adult parasitoids emerged per 10 exposed galls (infested with 10 fly larvae each), and 15-26% of dead fly puparia or larvae contained dead parasitoids. Three of the four tephritid hosts tested are considered beneficial for weed control in Hawaii (Eutreta xanthochaeta, Ensina sonchi, and Procecidochares utilis) and the fourth is an endemic flowerhead infesting tephritid (Trupanea dubautiae). Additional non-target work was conducted in California as part of an olive fly biological control program (Kuslitzky et al. 2011).