Only one species in this genus, A. indica (Silvestri), has been recorded from tephritid hosts.

See also the Eulophidae page.

Taxonomic History / Nomenclature
The genus name Syntomosphyrum was often used in the older literature on this species.
Diagnosis and Relationships
Eulophids are generally recognized by their four-segmented tarsi (Fig. 1: note that the dark portion at the apex is not a segment but the pretarsus, which includes the claws and the large pad between the claws). Aceratoneuromyia indica can be distinguished from most other eulophids that have been reared from tephritids by the color of the wing and body, and by the arrangement of setae on the thorax. The species of Tetrastichus tend to have a bluish color pattern and dark (blue to black) coxae, trochanters, and femora whereas A. indica is brown (including the coxae), with the remainder of the legs yellowish (Fig. 2). Species of Melittobia that occasionally attack Tephritidae may also be similar in coloration to A. indica, but the pronotum and mesonotum of Melittobia are both covered with numerous short setae. In A. indica, the setae are few in number (usually 2-3 pair on the mesonotum: Fig. 3), and much longer (longer than the tibial spurs).
1. Leg showing 4 tars...
2. Aceratoneuromyia indica habit...
3. Aceratoneuromyia in...
4. Aceratoneuromyia indica he...
5. Aceratoneuromyia indica fore wi...
6. Aceratoneuromyia indica base of fore wing...
This species was originally described from material collected in India by G. Compere, and has subsequently been widely distributed following its culture and release first in Italy (Silvestri 1910) and shortly thereafter in Hawaii. Ovruski et al. (2000) list this species from 8 countries in the New World. See also Clausen (1978).
No referenced distribution records have been added to the database for this OTU.
Biology / Hosts
Known hosts include members of the tephritid genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Dacus, and Ceratitis.
Biology and Behavior
Aceratoneuromyia indica is a gregarious, koinobiont endoparasitoid. The female wasp oviposits into late instar larvae and the progeny emerge from the puparium of the host. Detailed biological information on this species has been published by Silvestri [Silvestri 1910, Silvestri 1913 (Italian version) and Silvestri 1914 (English version)]. Development during summer months in the Mediterranean region is as short as 2-3 weeks.
Biological Control
A. indica has been widely used in biological control of tephritid pests both in the New and Old World. It was initially described from material collected by G. Compere, who released it in Western Australia against medfly. Compere also sent cultures to Silvestri in Italy (as early as 1909, though this first release was unsuccessful) and Lounsbury in South Africa. Gurney (1936) was apparently the second person to collect this species in India, but he was unsuccessful in his attempt to introduce A. indica to Eastern Australia.

A listing of A. indica introductions in the New World for biological control is provided below summarized from Ovruski, Aluja, Sivinski, and Wharton 2000:

Mexico—introduced in 1955 against Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua; specimens recovered, established (Clausen 1978, Jimenez-Jimenez 1958, Jimenez-Jimenez 1959, Jimenez-Jimenez 1969).
Costa Rica—introduced in 1955 against Ceratitis capitata; specimens recovered, established (Vaughn 1992, Wharton 1989, Wharton et al. 1981).
Nicaragua—introduced in 1958, 1971 against Anastepha spp. and C. capitata; specimens recovered, established (Vaughn 1992, Wharton et al. 1981).
Argentina—introduced in 1961, 1986 against C. capitata, A. fraterculus; specimens recovered, established (Altieri et al. 1989, Ovruski 1995, Turica 1968).
Bolivia—introduced in 1969 against C. capitata, Anastrepha spp.; specimens recovered, established (Altieri et al. 1989, Bascope 1994, Pruett 1996, Vaughn 1992).
Panama—introduced in 1971 against C. capitata, Anastrepha spp.; (Wharton et al. 1981).
Venezuela—introduced in ? against Anastrepha spp.; specimens recovered, established (Hentze et al. 1993).
Florida—introduced against Anastrepha suspensa; established (Baranowski et al. 1993).